sunEthics 

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Florida - CONFIDENTIALITY and PRIVILEGES



Supreme Court decides that, like retained and appointed counsel, pro bono counsel in criminal case may file motions for appointed experts and miscellaneous costs ex parte and under seal. [Added 5/23/18]
Indigent criminal defendant Andrews was represented by pro bono private counsel in a resentencing proceeding.  In order to avoid disclosing privileged information or work product to the prosecution, Andrews sought to file her motions for appointed experts and miscellaneous costs ex parte and under seal, with service to the Justice Administrative Commission and notice to the State Attorney’s Office.   The trial court denied the motion.  Andrews petitioned for a writ of certiorari, arguing that denial “will result in the violation of her rights to due process, fundamental fairness, equal protection, and effective assistance of counsel under the United States and Florida Constitutions, as well as the attorney-client privilege and the work-product doctrine.”  The First DCA denied the petition, but certified the following question to the Florida Supreme Court as one of great public importance:  “Whether an indigent defendant who is represented by private counsel pro bono is entitled to file motions pertaining to the appointment and costs of experts, mitigation specialists, and investigators ex parte and under seal, with service to the Justice Administrative Commission and notice to the State Attorney’s Office, and to have any hearing on such motions ex parte, with only the defendant and the Commission present.”  Andrews v. State, 218 So.3d 466 (Fla. 1st DCA 2017).
The Florida Supreme Court answered the certified question in the affirmative and quashed the First DCA’s decision, stating:  “Andrews argues that ‘comparable defendants represented by private counsel would not be required to divulge details to the prosecution regarding the hiring of experts, nor would similarly-situated defendants who are represented by the Office of the Public Defender or the Office of Criminal Conflict and Civil Regional Counsel.’  We agree with Andrews.”
The Court reasoned that, in making the showing of particularized need that is required in order to obtain approval for expenditure of funds for experts, a defendant may need to disclose privileged information or attorney work product.  Even disclosing the name of the expert and the expert’s area of expertise may disclose work product or otherwise provide information that the State is not entitled to know at that stage of the case.  Even the State’s presence at the hearing “puts the defendant in the difficult situation of having to choose between fully supporting the motion for the appointment of an expert and not revealing information to the State that it would not otherwise be privy to.”
In conclusion, the Court stated:  “[W]e hold that indigent defendants represented by private counsel pro bono are entitled to file motions pertaining to the appointment and costs of experts, mitigation specialists, and investigators ex parte and under seal, with service to the Justice Administrative Commission and notice to the State Attorney’s Office, and to have any hearing on such motion ex parte, with only the defendant and the Commission present.”  Andrews v. State, __ So.2d __ (Fla., No. SC17-1034, 5/17/2018), 2018 WL 2252180.


U.S. District Court for Southern District sanctions lawyer and refers him to Florida Bar for failing to disclose relevant facts that would have eliminated need for hearing on moot issue, despite lawyer’s assertion of confidentiality rule as defense. [Added 5/14/18]
Brendel sued former business associates in a Texas court, ultimately recovering a judgment against all defendants except for Mary Meyrowitz.  Two of those defendants, Scott Meyrowitz (Mary’s husband) and SSB International, LLC (“Plaintiffs”), sued Brendel and Wells Fargo Bank on a related matter in federal court in Florida.  Plaintiffs were represented by lawyer Caplan.  The Bank settled with Plaintiffs.  Brendel petitioned to garnish the settlement to satisfy his Texas judgment.  Plaintiffs stipulated to dismissal of the claim against the Bank on August 7, and the settlement funds were deposited in Caplan’s trust account.  That same day Plaintiffs filed a response to Brendel’s garnishment petition.  On the following day, Caplan disbursed the settlement funds to Mary Meyrowitz.  Caplan did not notify the court or opposing counsel of this.
A hearing on the garnishment was set for September 26.  At that hearing Caplan informed the court that he had disbursed the funds.  Brendel moved for sanctions, including attorney’s fees and costs associated with preparing for the September 26 hearing – which turned out to be unnecessary because the funds that were the subject of the garnishment petition had previously been disbursed and were no longer being held by Caplan.
Plaintiffs responded to the motion for sanctions by contending that Rule 4-1.6 (confidentiality) and the terms of the settlement with the Bank prevented Caplan from informing Brendel or the court that he had disbursed the funds.  Caplan argued “that his ‘preeminent obligation’ was to keep ‘any and all information related to his client in complete confidence,’ and therefore he was not obligated to inform the Court, or Defendant and defense counsel, that he had already disbursed the funds” (citations omitted).  He further argued that “his duty as a zealous advocate to his clients ‘outweighed any need to apprise the Court in advance of the hearing of the settlement distributions.”
The court rejected Caplan’s defense and imposed sanctions.  “Mr. Caplan’s assertion that informing the Court and defense counsel would violate his duty of confidentiality is wholly without merit.  . . .  The Notice of Settlement between Plaintiffs and Wells Fargo was entered onto the docket, which is public record.  . . .  Acknowledging that he had disbursed any settlement funds – or alternatively, that he was not in possession of any settlement funds and that the pending motion was moot – would in no way have violated Mr. Caplan’s duty to his clients, nor would it have violated the confidentiality of the settlement agreement.”  Caplan’s argument “completely ignores his duty of professionalism and candor to the Court and opposing counsel.”
The court imposed sanctions for the expenses related to failure to disclose, which led to the unnecessary September 26 hearing.  However, a determination as to whether the disbursement violated the Rules Regulating The Florida Bar “is best left to the Florida Bar, should Defendant or Defendant’s counsel choose to file a Bar Complaint.”   Meyrowitz v. Brendel, __ F.Supp.3d __ (S.D. Fla., No. 16-81793-CV-Marra/Matthewman, 4/9/2018), 2018 WL 1718289.


While noting Florida law does not specifically recognize “claims file privilege,” Third DCA quashes order requiring production of certain claims file materials in first-party breach of contract action. Added 5/11/18]
Insured homeowners made a claim with Insurer for property damage.  Insurer made some payments.  Dissatisfied with the amount paid, Insureds had their public adjuster write a letter contesting adequacy of the payments.  Insurer then paid more, but Insureds were not satisfied and sued for breach of contract.
In discovery Insureds broadly requested “any documents relating to the claim file” and other specified documents.  Insurer objected to most of the requests on the grounds of work product privilege or “claims file privilege” and filed a privilege log.  After an in camera review, the trial court ordered some of the requested documents produced, ruling that “they were not protected by either the work product privilege or a ‘claims file privilege.’”
The Third DCA granted Insurer’s petition for certiorari and quashed the production order.  The court relied on Nationwide Ins. Co. of Fla. v. Demmo, 57 So.3d 982 (Fla. 2d DCA 2011), which concluded that it was unnecessary for a trial court to review the disputed documents in order to determine which were prepared in anticipation of litigation because “[a] court departs from the essential requirements of the law in compelling disclosure of the contents of an insurer’s claim file when the issue of coverage is in dispute and has not been resolved.”  Demmo at 984, quoting Seminole Cas. Ins. Co. v. Mastrominas, 6 So.3d 1256, 1258 (Fla. 2d DCA 2009).  The instant case was a breach of contract suit, not a bad faith case.
In closing, the court commented regarding the assertion of a claims file privilege:  “There is no such privilege by that designation in the cited cases or Florida’s Rules of Procedure or Evidence Code.  Thus, a specifically-articulated document request for ‘photographs of the alleged property damage’ may require either (a) production of such photographs, or (b) disclosure on a privilege log with a specifically-articulated basis for protection from discovery, even if those photographs have been filed with other non-discoverable, claim-related  documents in the insurer’s ‘claims file’ and coverage remains in dispute.”   Homeowners Choice Property and Casualty Ins. Co., Inc. v. Avila, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D17-465, 4/25/2018), 2018 WL 1936572.


First DCA rules that litigation privilege does not bar action for malicious prosecution, regardless of whether party in question was original defendant in underlying litigation or was added later. [Added 3/8/18]
Plaintiffs sued Defendants in actions for foreclosure and declaratory judgment.  After the suits were dismissed, Defendants sued Plaintiffs for malicious prosecution.  Plaintiffs asserted that the malicious prosecution claims were barred by the litigation privilege.  The trial court agreed and dismissed the malicious prosecution suit.
The First DCA reversed.  In Debrincat v. Fischer, 217 So.3d 68 (Fla. 2017), the Supreme Court held that the litigation privilege did not bar the filing of a malicious prosecution claim that was based on adding, and later dropping, a party defendant to a civil suit. In the instant suit, Plaintiffs argued that Debrincat only applied where a party was added to the litigation.  The First DCA rejected this contention, stating:  “We see nothing in the language in Debrincat to support this conclusion.  . . .  We hold that the litigation privilege is not an absolute bar to [Defendants’] claims of malicious prosecution.”   Inlet Beach Capital Investments, LLC v. The Enclave at Inlet Beach Owners Ass’n, Inc., __ So.3d __ (Fla. 1st DCA, Nos. 1D16-2282, 1D16-2283, 1D16-3833, 1/17/2018). 2018 WL 444242.


In Boecher discovery dispute, court erred in ordering production of documents over privilege and work product objections without making specific findings to support denial of those objections. [Added 3/7/18]
In a uninsured motorist coverage and bad faith dispute, Insured sued insurer State Farm and sought Boecher discovery of amounts paid by State Farm over 3 years to its expert, Dr. Zeide (see Allstate Ins. Co. v. Boecher, 733 So.2d 993 (Fla. 1999)).  State Farm objected on grounds including attorney-client privilege and work product doctrine. The trial court reviewed the documents in camera and ultimately ruled that “the information and documents relating to State Farm’s use of and payments to Dr. Zeide were reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence; thus, they were discoverable.”  State Farm petitioned the Fifth DCA for a writ of certiorari.
The appellate court granted the petition and quashed the production order.  “When a party asserts privilege objections in opposition to discovery requests, the trial court must make specific findings to support its denial of those objections. Such findings are necessary for meaningful appellate review.”  See Magical Cruise Co. v. Turk, 114 So. 3d 233 (Fla. 5th DCA 2013).  The trial court’s production order only addressed possible relevance of the documents, “while completely ignoring State Farm’s claims that the documents were exempt from discovery as privileged work product or confidential attorney-client communication.”
The court remanded for further proceedings to determine if State Farm’s privilege and work product claims were well-founded.  It noted that, “[i]f If on remand the trial court agrees that State Farm’s work product claims are valid, Respondent would be entitled to the “fact” work product contained in the documents only if he can establish need and undue hardship.”  Further, “if on remand the trial court determines that certain documents constitute confidential attorney-client communication, they are beyond the reach of discovery” because “there are no ‘relevance’ or ‘need’ exceptions to the attorney-client privilege.”   State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins. Co. v. Knapp, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 5th DCA, No. 5D17-447, 1/12/2018), 2018 WL 387222.


“Malpractice exception” to attorney-client privilege applies only to communications between client and lawyer being sued, not to communications between client and other counsel. [Added 1/29/18]
The Law Offices of Herssein and Herssein (“Herssein”) had a contract to defend homeowners insured by liability insurer United States Automobile Association (“USAA”).  USAA insured Brennan had a dispute with “Claimant,” who allegedly was injured by Brennan’s dogs.  USAA accepted a pre-suit demand for policy limits and tendered a check, but Claimant declined to cash the check and instead filed suit against Brennan and others (“Claimant’s Case”).  Herssein was assigned to defend Brennan.
Instead of seeking to enforce the prior settlement agreement, Herssein withdrew the policy limit tender.  During the litigation, Herssein advised Brennan to reject a policy-limit proposal for settlement.  Herssein served a counter-proposal, which was rejected.  At trial partial summary judgment was rendered for Claimant.  Brennan then hired her own counsel (Maher) who indicated that Brennan may pursue a bad faith action against USAA and a legal malpractice action against Herssein.  Recognizing the conflict, Herssein withdrew.
USAA appointed Wadsworth as successor counsel to represent Brennan.  Claimant’s Case was settled at mediation, where USAA was represented by2 lawyers.  Not long after that, USAA terminated its contract with Herssein.  Herssein sued for breach of contract, and USAA counterclaimed alleging that it suffered damages due to Herssein’s negligent handling of Claimant’s Case. 
Herssein sent interrogatories to USAA, including this one:  “Whose advice did USAA take to settle [Claimaint’s Case] and pay over the insured’s policy limits, if that is what occurred?”  USAA raised an attorney-client privilege objection to this interrogatory.  Herssein also served Wadsworth with a non-party subpoena seeking documents that included communications between Wadsworth and “any person or party” involved in Claimant’s Case.  Wadsworth objected, also on attorney-client privilege grounds.  The trial court ordered USAA to answer and Wadsworth to produce.  Both filed a petition for certiorari review.  The Third DCA quashed the orders.
The appeals court concluded that the interrogatory to USAA sought privileged communications, because it sought “the identity of the lawyer who advised USAA to settle the case at the mediation.  There is no practical difference, then, between this interrogatory question and asking USAA to divulge the content of the legal advice each attorney attending the mediation provided to USAA.  Plainly, then, the subject interrogatory seeks confidential communications between USAA and its lawyers and is protected by the attorney-client privilege.”  (Emphasis by court.)
The documents sought from Wadsworth also were privileged.  Even though Brennan had his own counsel during the mediation, “it is well settled that communications between an insurer and the lawyer hired by the insurer to protect the insured’s interests are protected by the attorney-client privilege because the insurer and insured share a common interest in the outcome of the case.”
Herssein, however, argued that the “malpractice exception” to the attorney-client privilege applied.  See F.S. 90.502(4)(c) (“[t]here is no lawyer-client privilege . . . when . . . [a] communication is relevant to an issue of breach of duty by the lawyer to the client or by the client to the lawyer, arising from the lawyer-client relationship.”).  The Third DCA disagreed.  Citing Coyne v. Schwartz, Gold, Cohen, Zakarin & Kotler, P.A., 715 So.2d 1021 (Fla. 4th DCA 1998), the court held the malpractice exception to the privilege “applies only to communications between the client and the lawyer being sued.”  Neither the USAA lawyers nor Wadsworth met that requirement, and so the orders requiring disclosure were quashed.   United States Auto. Ass’n v. Law Offices of Herssein and Herssein, P.A., __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, Nos. 3D17-1457, 3D17-1500, 3D17-1527, 12/13/2017), 2017 WL 6346673.


Litigation privilege does not protect defendant’s “noncommunicative” conduct in accessing opponents’ password-protected computer account, and statements made during examination under oath are subject only to qualified, not absolute, privilege. [Added 12/28/17]
Lawyer and Law Firm represented insurers in defending claims that they breached homeowner’s insurance policies by not covering expensive repairs made by a plumbing company (“Plaintiff”) to the insureds’ damaged pipes.  The Firm worked with a former employee of Plaintiff who still had an active password to Plaintiff’s global positioning system account.  Using the password, the Firm accessed Plaintiff’s account without telling Plaintiff.  Law Firm used this information in issuing subpoenas and in conducting an examination under oath of an insured.
When Plaintiff learned about the conduct of Lawyer and Law Firm, it sued them along with other defendants (including the former employee).  Lawyer and Law Firm moved for summary judgment, contending that their conduct was protected by the litigation privilege.  The trial court granted the motion.
Plaintiff appealed, arguing that (1) the litigation privilege did not extend to the Firm accessing its computer account and (2) that the absolute litigation privilege did not apply to the Firm’s questions at the examination under oath.  The Third DCA reversed and remanded.
Accessing Plaintiff’s password-protected account.  The appeals court pointed out that there is a distinction between communicative and noncommunicative acts when applying the litigation privilege.  The purpose of the privilege “is to protect courtroom speech and advocacy – the communicative tools lawyers, litigants, and witnesses use to search for the truth in our adversarial justice system.”  The court concluded:  “Without a communicative act, [Lawyer] and his firm’s actions fall outside what the Florida Supreme Court has held as protected by the litigation privilege.  We conclude that [Lawyer]’s sitting at his computer and accessing [Plaintiff’s] account was not a communication subject to the privilege.”
Examination under oath.  Law Firm argued that the absolute litigation privilege applied to the questioning at the examination under oath, just as it would if the questioning occurred during a deposition.  The appellate court disagreed.  “The absolute privilege, the Florida Supreme Court has explained, is part of a tradeoff.  The absolute privilege was created to encourage zealous  representation and the free and full discovery of facts between the parties and the court.  . . .  In exchange, the parties subject themselves to the consequences if they cross the line: striking from the record scurrilous accusations; sanctions; and even criminal contempt.  The civil procedure deposition fits snuggly within this balance.  Examinations under oath do not.  . . .  We conclude that an examination under oath is outside the formal discovery process, and therefore, does not support an extension of the absolute privilege.”  (Citations omitted.)  The court concluded that only a qualified privilege could apply, and remanded for determination of whether the statements were made with express malice.   Arko Plumbing Corp. v. Rudd, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D16-1689, 10/18/2017), 2017 WL 4654904.



Supreme Court broadly construes Amendment 7 to protect external peer review reports of hospital’s adverse medical incidents created by outside retained expert. [Added 11/28/17]
Plaintiff sued Hospital for alleged medical negligence by a Hospital surgeon.  Plaintiff sought discovery of all documents relating to Hospital’s investigation or review of her care and treatment.  Hospital asserted privilege as to certain documents, including “attorney requested external peer review” reports.  The trial court found the external peer review reports to be privileged, but ordered production on the ground that the privileges were preempted by Amendment 7 (Fla.Constit. Art. X, Sec. 25).
The Second DCA quashed the production order, concluding that the reports “are not within the ambit of Amendment 7.”  Amendment 7 preempts the statutory discovery protections for the peer review process “by providing patients a right of ‘access to any records made or received in the course of business by a health care facility or provider relating to any adverse medical incident.’”  The attorney-requested external peer review reports were not created “in the course of business;” rather, they were prepared for litigation purposes.  “Records created by an expert retained for purposes of litigation are not kept in the course of regularly conducted business activity.  [Citation omitted.]  Accordingly, the external peer review reports were not ‘made or received in the course of business’ under Amendment 7” and so were not covered by the amendment.  Bartow HMA, LLC v. Edwards, 175 So.3d 820 (Fla. 2d DCA 2015).
The Supreme Court reversed, holding that Hospital’s “external peer review reports are discoverable under Amendment 7’s broad reach.”
Regarding the scope of Amendment 7, Plaintiff argued that it was intended to do away with all limitations on the discovery of adverse medical incidents; in contrast, Hospital argued that the amendment eliminated only the specific statutory limitations on discovery that were in place when Amendment 7 was passed in 2004.  After discussing the “plain language” of Amendment 7, the Supreme Court sided with Plaintiff:  “[W]e hold that Amendment 7’s application was not intended to be limited only to those adverse medical incident records previously protected by statute.”  Rather, “Amendment 7 was aimed at eliminating all discovery restrictions on ‘any records . . . relating to any adverse medical incident.’”  (Emphasis by court.)
The Court further determined that the reports in question, prepared by an external peer review committee, were subject to discovery under Amendment 7.  “[T]he the mere fact that [Hospital] voluntarily outsourced its peer review needs also does not place the reports produced outside or beyond the scope of Amendment 7’s reach.  Any contrary conclusion would provide hospitals with a blueprint as to the method to evade their constitutionally-mandated discovery requirements.”
Finally, the Court indicated that Amendment 7 would require production of fact work product, but stated that, based on the record before it, the Court did not find it necessary to address “the issue of opinion work product or the attorney-client privilege as they relate to Amendment 7.”
Two justices dissented, noting, among other things, that “Amendment 7’s history underscores that it was not intended to destroy the work-product doctrine or the attorney-client privilege.”   Edwards v. Thomas, __ So.3d __ (Fla., No. SC15-1893, 10/26/2017), 2017 WL 4837631.


Third DCA upholds sanction order imposing waiver of party’s work product privilege as to certain emails based “serious and intentional” discovery violations by party rather than counsel. [Added 7/25/17]
As a sanction for “serious and intentional discovery violations” relating to certain emails, the trial court ordered that Defendant’s work product privilege regarding the emails be waived.  The emails pertained to Defendant’s investigations and actions following an incident involving Plaintiff.  The sanction was imposed based on the conduct of Defendant, not is counsel.
Defendant petitioned the Third DCA for a writ of certiorari, contending that the trial court departed from the essential requirements of law.  The appellate court denied the petition, concluding:  “As there is competent substantial evidence to support the trial court’s finding that the discovery violations were intentional and because the sanction imposed by the trial court was well within its discretion, we find no departure from the essential requirements of law.”   Kidde Fire Trainers, Inc. v. McCrea, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D17-636, 6/14/2017), 2017 WL 2562404.


First DCA concludes that indigent defendant represented by pro bono counsel has no right to file motions for appointed experts and miscellaneous costs ex parte and under seal, but certifies question to the Supreme Court.  [Added 6/12/17]
Criminal Defendant was indigent and represented by pro bono private counsel in a resentencing proceeding.  “In order to avoid revealing privileged information or work product to the State Attorney’s Office, [Defendant] requested permission to file all her motions for appointed experts and miscellaneous costs ex parte and under seal, with service to the Justice Administrative Commission (‘JAC’) and notice to the State Attorney’s Office, and requested that the JAC be required to file all responses that may reveal substantive content relevant to her defense without service to the State and under seal.”  The trial court denied the motion.
Defendant petitioned the First DCA for a writ of certiorari, arguing that denial “will result in the violation of her rights to due process, fundamental fairness, equal protection, and effective assistance of counsel under the United States and Florida Constitutions, as well as the attorney-client privilege and the work-product doctrine.”
The First DCA denied the petition, noting its “limited standard of review.”  Although the court found Defendant’s argument “persuasive,” she had “cite[d] no Florida case law, Florida statute, or Florida rule of court that requires motions for appointment of experts and costs to be conducted on an ex parte basis under the facts of this case and our independent research disclosed none.”
The court certified the following question to the Florida Supreme Court as one of great public importance:  “Whether an indigent defendant who is represented by private counsel pro bono is entitled to file motions pertaining to the appointment and costs of experts, mitigation specialists, and investigators ex parte and under seal, with service to the Justice Administrative Commission and notice to the State Attorney’s Office, and to have any hearing on such motions ex parte, with only the defendant and the Commission present.” Andrews v. State, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 1st DCA, No. 1D16-733, 5/2/2017), 2017 WL 1655247.
[See also Monroe v. State, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 1st DCA, No. 1D16-4672), 2017 WL 3122203.]


Evidentiary hearing required to determine whether crime-fraud exception applies to asserted attorney-client privilege.  [Added 6/3/17]
Plaintiff suspected that Defendants “were behind a hate mail campaign directed at him.”  Plaintiff also suspected that Defendants were funding a suit against him (the “Kay-Dee case”).  Representing Plaintiff, Lawyer set depositions for Defendants in the Kay-Dee case even though Defendants were not parties in that case.  At the depositions Lawyer had Defendants touch paper that was treated to allow for easier collection of DNA.  After the depositions Lawyer also collected Defendants’ discarded water bottles for DNA collection.  Eight months later, Plaintiff sued Defendants for defamation.
In the defamation action, Defendants deposed Lawyer about “the scheduling of their deposition and the DNA collection in the Kay-Dee case.  [Lawyer] asserted attorney-client and Fifth Amendment privileges throughout.  The defendants then moved to compel the attorney to answer questions, arguing the crime-fraud exception applied to avoid the attorney-client privilege.”  Defendants alleged that Lawyer’s conduct violated F.S. 760.40, generally requiring consent to do a DNA test.
Lawyer was not present at the hearing on the motion to compel.  The trial court concluded that Lawyer had participated in a “fraud upon the court” in connection with scheduling Defendants’ depositions without a legitimate purpose apart from DNA collection and ruled that the crime-fraud exception to the attorney-client privilege applied.
Lawyer petitioned for writ of certiorari, arguing that “he did not receive notice of, and was not present at, the hearing leading to the detailed order under review.”  The Fourth DCA agreed and quashed the order.  Due process requires an evidentiary hearing to determine applicability of the crime-fraud exception, and Lawyer “was denied due process when the court found that his conduct was fraudulent without offering him an opportunity to be heard.” Douberley v. Perlmutter, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 4th DCA, No. 4D16-2597, 5/24/2017), 2017 WL 2264617.



Court erred in granting summary judgment on law firm’s claim of litigation privilege, where some of firm’s actions were taken after withdrawing from representation. [Added 5/17/17]
Law firm Business Law Group (“BLG”) represented a condominium association on matters relating to collections and enforcement of liens.  The client recorded a claim of lien against a unit owner for unpaid assessments.  The unit was sold to AGM Investors at auction due to unpaid taxes.  That sale extinguished the client association’s lien claim.  Despite this, BLG recorded 3 claims of lien against AGM.  After the third claim, BLG represented its client in filing a foreclosure suit against AGM.
AGM filed counterclaims against the association and against BLG for abuse of process, malicious prosecution, and slander of title.  At that point, BLG “sought to withdraw as the association's counsel, alleging that AGM's assertion of third-party claims against it created a potential conflict of interest with the association.”  The court granted the motion to withdraw – but 2 months later BLG filed a 4th and 5th claim of lien against AGM.
The trial court granted summary judgment for BLG based on its defense of litigation privilege, “reasoning that the filing of each of the claims of lien was necessarily preliminary to the enforcement of the association's lien for unpaid assessments in a judicial proceeding and, as a result, that the absolute litigation privilege barred AGM's claims as a matter of law.”  AGM appealed.
The Second DCA reversed.  The litigation privilege exempts litigation participants from liability for their conduct in the course of judicial proceedings if that conduct is related or connected to the subject at issue.  This privilege applies in litigation as well as to conduct that is “necessarily preliminary” to judicial proceedings.  Here, there was a question of material facts as to whether the 4th and 5th claims of lien were “necessarily preliminary” to any lien foreclosure proceedings, in view of the fact that the foreclosure was already underway when those liens were filed.  The court pointed out that it was “entirely debatable . . . that no one ever contemplated commencing litigation based on the fourth and fifth claims of lien and, as a result, that the recording of those claims of lien was not preliminary to future litigation because the association's lien interest was already fully protected by the then-ongoing litigation . . .” Although not ruled on in yet Florida, other jurisdictions have held that “tortious conduct will not be protected by the litigation privilege as being preliminary to future litigation unless that future litigation was actually contemplated in good faith and under serious consideration.”  (Citations omitted.)
Further, the court noted that the 4th and 5th claims of lien were filed after BLG had withdrawn from the case.  This raised a factual issue.  “If the facts are disputable regarding whether [BLG] was acting on the association’s behalf when it filed the last two claims of lien, then entering summary judgment on AGM’s third-party tort claims as related to the fourth and fifth claims of lien based on the application of the litigation privilege was error.  An act taken outside the scope of [BLG]’s representation cannot have been necessarily preliminary to any future lien enforcement proceedings.” AGM Investors, LLC v. Business Law Group, P.A., __ So.3d __ (Fla. 2d DCA, No. 2D14-4704, 4/19/2017), 2017 WL 1399764.



Supreme Court rules that whether personal injury client’s lawyer referred client to a doctor for treatment is protected by attorney-client privilege. [Added 4/19/17]
            Client was injured in a “relatively routine trip-and-fall” in Defendant’s parking lot.  She did not see a specialist immediately.  A month or two later, after retaining Law Firm, she was treated by doctors from several medical facilities.  Those doctors’ bills appeared to Defendant to be “unusually high,” and Client conceded that it could be argued that the bills were “unreasonable.”
          Defendant sought to discover financial and referral information regarding what it termed a “cozy agreement” between Law Firm and Client’s treating physicians.  All of the treating physicians testified that they were unsure who referred Client to them.  The court ultimately ordered Client to produce documents reflecting direct and indirect referral arrangements or understandings between Law Firm and the physicians.  “If the health care provider doesn’t have it, then the law firm is to produce it.”
          Client petitioned the Fifth DCA, seeking to quash the order for reasons including that it “requires production of information protected by attorney-client privilege.”  The appellate court denied the petition.  The appeals court certified conflict with Burt v. GEICO, 603 So.3d 125 (Fla. 2d DCA 1992), “to the extent that it holds that the disclosure of a referral of a client by an attorney to a healthcare provider is always protected by attorney-client privilege.”
Exercising its conflict jurisdiction, the Supreme Court quashed Worley and approved BurtWorley v. Central Florida YMCA, 163 So.3d 1240 (Fla. 5th DCA 2015).
          The Supreme Court began its analysis by rejecting the underpinning of the Fifth DCA’s decision, which was the view that, under Allstate Ins. Co. v. Boecher, 733 So.2d 993 (Fla. 1993), the financial relationship between a law firm and its client’s treating physician is discoverable.  Boecher dealt with discoverability of the financial relationship between a defendant insurance company and its expert witness.  The Supreme Court distinguished Boecher on 2 grounds:  (1) unlike the insurance company in Boecher, the law firm is not a party to the case; and (2) Boecher dealt with experts who were hired for the purposes of litigation, as opposed to treating physicians who are involved because they are acting “in the course of attempting to make [their] patient[s] well” and, when they do testify, they usually testify about their own medical performance rather than someone else’s.  (Citations omitted.)
          The Court also commented that there are other ways to demonstrate bias on the part of the treating physician, such as providing evidence that the physician was relying on a letter of protection or that the physician’s practice was based entirely on patients treated under letters of protection.
          With that backdrop, the Court held that “the question of whether a plaintiff’s attorney referred him or her to a doctor for treatment is protected by the attorney-client privilege.”  None of the exceptions to the statutory privilege were applicable.  The Court also rejected the contention that the act of referring a client to a doctor was “an underlying fact” rather than a communication.  “That the plaintiff was treated by a particular doctor is an underlying fact.  That the plaintiff received a referral to see a particular doctor is also an underlying fact.  However, whether the plaintiff’s attorney requested that the client see a certain doctor requires the plaintiff to disclose a part of a communication that was held between the plaintiff and attorney, and we resist any attempts to separate the contents of communications to distinguish ‘facts’ from privileged information.  To hold otherwise would severely undermine the purpose of the privilege, which is to encourage the free flow of information between attorneys and their clients.”
         The Court also quashed the trial court’s order regarding a supplemental request to produce information, finding it “unduly burdensome” and thus could have a “chilling effect on doctors who may refuse to treat patients who could end up in litigation out of fear of becoming embroiled in the litigation.”
         Three justices of the 7-member Court dissented, expressing the view that “[a] lawyer’s referral of a client to a treating medical provider is for the purpose of the client’s medical care, not in furtherance of legal services.  Therefore, the referral itself is not protected as an attorney-client privileged communication.” Worley v. Central Florida Young Men’s Christian Ass’n, Inc., __ So.3d __ (Fla., No. SC15-1086, 4/13/2017), 2017 WL 1366126.


Court erred in overruling non-party’s relevance objections to subpoena that sought privileged documents and requirement that non-party file privilege log.  [Added 3/6/17]
An individual died after an accident on Petitioner’s property.  The decedent’s estate did not sue Petitioner but instead served a subpoena on it.  Petitioner objected on grounds of relevance (that it was not reasonably calculated to lead to discovery of admissible evidence in the probate action), asserted that the documents sought were privileged, and argued that as a non-party to the probate action it was not required to file a privilege log.  Petitioner filed an affidavit of its safety manager stating that the documents were all prepared in anticipation of litigation at the direction of counsel.  Petitioner argued that the subpoena was “nothing more than a fishing expedition.”
The trial court overruled the relevance objections and ordered Petitioner to file a privilege log as a prelude to an in camera inspection.  Petitioner sought a writ of certiorari from the Fourth DCA.
The appellate court granted the petition and quashed the order.  The documents sought were not “relevant to the subject matter of the pending action” as required by Fla.R.Civ.P. 1.280(b)(1) because Petitioner is not a party to the probate action.  Further, the subpoena sought document that are privileged under the work product doctrine.
Regarding the privilege log, the court stated:  “Even if the subpoena arguably sought non-privileged documents which are reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence in a probate action, the probate court erred in requiring the petitioner, as a non-party to the probate action, to file a privilege log.  We previously have held that the plain language of [Fla.R.Civ.P.] 1.280 and 1.351 . . . do not require non-parties to file privilege logs.” United States Sugar Corp. v. Estate of Mullins, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 4th DCA 1/25/2017), 2017 WL 363141.


Supreme Court decides that litigation privilege cannot be used to bar claim of malicious prosecution that is otherwise viable. [Added 2/21/17]
Exercising its conflict jurisdiction, the Florida Supreme Court held that “the litigation privilege does not bar the filing of a claim for malicious prosecution that was based on adding a party defendant to a civil suit.”  The Court approved the Fourth DCA’s decision in Fischer v. Debrincat, 169 So.3d 1204 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015) and quashed the Third DCA’s decision in Wolfe v. Foreman, 128 So.3d 67 (Fla. 3d DCA 2013) to the extend it is inconsistent with the Supreme Court’s decision.
Plaintiffs sued a number of defendants, later adding Fischer as a party defendant and then subsequently  dropping him.  Fischer sued for malicious prosecution.  Plaintiffs moved for summary judgment, arguing that the litigation privilege provided them with immunity for their conduct of joining Fischer as a defendant in the underlying suit.  The trial court granted Plaintiffs’ motion for summary judgment.
The Fourth DCA reversed, holding that “the litigation privilege cannot be applied to bar the filing of a claim for malicious prosecution” where all of the elements of a malicious prosecution action are satisfied.  “Because the commencement or continuation of an original criminal or civil judicial proceeding is an act ‘occurring during the course of a judicial proceeding’ and having ‘some relation to the proceeding,’ malicious prosecution could never be established if causing the commencement or continuation of an original proceeding against the plaintiff were afforded absolute immunity under the litigation privilege.  If the litigation privilege could apply to bar a malicious prosecution action, this would mean that the tort of malicious prosecution would be effectively abolished in Florida – or, at the very least, eviscerated beyond recognition.”  The Fourth DCA certified conflict with the Third DCA’s decision in Wolfe.
The Supreme Court approved the Fourth DCA’s decision in Fischer.  “Applying the litigation privilege here would eviscerate this long-established cause of action for malicious prosecution.  Specifically, the first element of a claim for malicious prosecution is that ‘an original criminal or civil judicial proceeding against the present plaintiff was commenced or continued.’ [Alamo Rent-A-Car, Inc. v. Mancusi, 632 So.2d 1352, 1355 (Fla. 1994)] (emphasis added).” Debrincat v. Fischer, __ So.3d __ (Fla., SC15-1477, 2/9/2017), 2017 WL 526508.


Supreme Court rules that Amendment 7 adverse incident reports are not privileged under Federal Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act. [Added 2/20/17]
Charles filed a medical malpractice suit against Hospital.  Under Amendment 7 (Fla. Constit. Art. X, Sec. 25) Charles sought production of documents relating to adverse medical incidents.  Hospital objected that the documents were privileged under the Federal Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act (42 U.S.C. sec. 299b-22 (2005)) (the “Federal Act”).  The trial court ordered production.  Hospital petitioned the First DCA for a writ of certiorari, which was granted.  The appellate court ruled that the Federal Act’s “plain language” made it clear that the documents were privileged under the Act as “patient safety work product.”  The court also held that under the Supremacy Clause the Federal Act preempted “any broad discovery right under Amendment 7 to documents meeting the [statutory] definition of” patient safety work product.  Southern Baptist Hospital of Florida, Inc. v. Charles, 178 So.3d 102 (Fla. 1st DCA 2015).
The Florida Supreme Court reversed.  The Court determined that “adverse medical incident reports are not patient safety work product because Florida statutes and administrative rules require providers to create and maintain these records and Amendment 7 provides patients with a constitutional right to access these records.”  Accordingly, they fall within an exception to the Federal Act’s protection.  Further, the Federal Act, which permits voluntary health care provider participation, did not preempt Amendment 7.
The Supreme Court summarized:  “[W]e hold that Congress did not intend to preempt state laws or Amendment 7 through the passage of the Federal Act creating a voluntary reporting system. Rather, the clear intent of the Federal Act, as set forth in the actual language of the Federal Act, was for the voluntary reporting system to function harmoniously within existing state reporting and discovery laws.  The Federal Act was intended by Congress to improve the overall health care in this system, not to act as a shield to providers, thereby dismantling an important right afforded to Florida citizens through Amendment 7.  Moreover, health care providers should not be able to unilaterally decide which documents will be discoverable and which will not in medical malpractice cases.” Charles v. Southern Baptist Hospital of Florida, Inc., __ So.3d __ (Fla., No. SC15-2180, 1/31/2017), 2017 WL 411333.


Court’s production order requiring filing of a privilege log as to categories of documents that “typically would be privileged” quashed by Fifth DCA. [Added 1/9/17]
Country Club sued Law Firm, alleging that Law Firm tortuously interfered with Country Club’s contractual relationships with some of Law Firm’s clients by wrongly advising or encouraging the clients to breach their contracts with Country Club.  Country Club moved to compel production of 10 categories of documents.  The court ordered Law Firm to produce the documents or file a privilege log regarding documents that were claimed to be privileged.
The Fifth DCA granted Law Firm’s certiorari petition in part.  “We realize that the order under review does not expressly require the production of any privileged communications since the order permits [Law Firm] to file a privilege log as to any such documents.  However, certain categories of documents clearly request documents that are privileged, either under the attorney-client or work-product privilege.  Thus, the trial court’s ruling requiring the production of a privilege log as to those categories constitutes a departure from the essential requirements of law resulting in material injury to [Law Firm] which cannot be remedied on direct appeal.”  Accordingly, the appeals court quashed the production order as to those documents “which would typically be privileged” under the attorney-client privilege or work product doctrine. Finn Law Group, P.A. v. Orange Lake Country Club, Inc., __ So.3d __ (Fla. 5th DCA, No. 5D16-1591, 12/16/2016), 2016 WL 7324199.


Criminal defendant’s handwritten notes not protected by attorney-client privilege because they were not “communications” with counsel. [Added 1/6/17]
Convicted criminal defendant Lee entered a plea to reduced charges of second-degree murder and attempted felony murder in exchange for providing assistance to the State in the prosecution of his co-defendants.  Counsel for the co-defendants deposed Lee.  During the deposition, Lee disclosed that he had prepared written notes on 2 or 3 occasions “for his ‘personal use.’”  Lee said that he did not give his lawyer a copy of the notes, but he had “discussed it with her.”  In fact, his lawyer was unaware of the existence of the notes until she learned of them at Lee’s deposition.
Counsel for the co-defendants moved to compel production of the notes.  Lee objected on attorney-client privilege grounds.  The trial court ordered production, ruling that “[n]o privilege exists and the notes are subject to the discovery rules.”
The Third DCA denied Lee’s petition for certiorari.  The attorney-client privilege codified in F.S. 90.502 protects confidential communications between client and lawyer made for the purpose of seeking or giving legal advice.  The court framed the issue as “whether the Notes are a ‘communication’ as referenced in section 90.502(1)(c), and therefore subject to the attorney-client privilege.”  The trial court had rejected Lee’s claims that he wrote the notes “as ‘trial preparations’ so that he could discuss ‘strategy’ with his lawyers.”  Specifically, “the trial court found that as ‘Lee never gave the notes to his attorney (or even discussed them with her until after the deposition) – and obviously only after a plea was reached – they were not written for trial preparation or strategy purposes.’”  These findings were supported by the record; “[s]ignificantly, there was no testimony or other evidence presented that Lee’s attorney requested he make the Notes, or that Lee intended the Notes to be delivered to his attorney.” Lee v. Condell, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D15-2316, 12/14/2016), 2016 WL 7232266.


Third DCA grants petition for certiorari to quash non-final order compelling disclosure of attorney-client privileged documents and opinion work product.  [Added 12/1/16]
In a suit against Defendants involving alleged fire sprinkler product defects, Plaintiffs sought production of 5 documents “created by, or directed to, attorneys advising [Defendants] and controlled affiliates regarding these products and the alleged problem.”  Defendants objected that the documents were attorney-client privileged communications and protected opinion work product, but the court ordered production.  Defendants petitioned the Third DCA for a writ of certiorari.
The appellate court granted the petition and quashed the order.  Certiorari lies to quash a non-final order directing disclosure of allegedly privileged documents.  “We have repeatedly described the “cat-out-of-the-bag” problem that results from the judicially-ordered disclosure of privileged attorney-client communications.”  Certiorari is also the proper method to review an order compelling disclosure of protected work product. Tyco Fire Products, L.P. v. 2711 Hollywood Beach Condominium Ass’n, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D16-2043, 11/16/2016), 2016 WL 6778389.


In addressing attorney-client privilege question concerning decedent’s estate planning lawyer, Third DCA highlights distinction between evidentiary privilege and ethical rule of confidentiality. [Added 10/28/16]
Lawyer represented Decedent in estate planning and prepared Decedent’s wills.  After Decedent died, some of her children filed a probate action challenging the wills.  The trial court ordered Lawyer to answer questions at a deposition in the litigation regarding Decedent’s “reasons for disinheriting” some of the children.
Lawyer petitioned for certiorari review, “asserting attorney-client privilege and confidentiality.”  The Third DCA denied the petition.  F.S. 90.502(4)(b) provides that there is no lawyer-client privilege when a communication “is relevant to an issue between parties who claim through the same deceased client.”
The court also rejected Lawyer’s reliance on the ethical rule of confidentiality set forth in Rule of Professional Conduct 4-1.6, pointing out that the Comment to the Rule distinguishes between privilege and confidentiality. “The attorney-client privilege [F.S. 90.502] applies in judicial and other proceedings in which a lawyer may be called as a witness or otherwise required to produce evidence concerning a client. The rule of client-lawyer confidentiality [Rule 4-1.6] applies in situations other than those where evidence is sought from the lawyer through compulsion of law.”  See also Coffey-Garcia v. South Miami Hospital, Inc., 194 So.3d 533, 536 n.1 (Fla. 3d DCA 2016) (ethical rule of confidentiality broader than scope than evidentiary attorney-client privilege). Vasallo v. Bean, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D16-1862, 10/26/2016), 2016 WL 624917.


Order requiring party to produce all sworn witness statements, which were work product, quashed as departure from essential requirements of law. [Added 10/22/16]
A trial court ordered Petitioners to produce copies of all sworn witness statements to Respondents.  Upon petition for certiorari, the Fifth DCA quashed the order.  “[T]he lower court ordered production of the witness statements solely because they were sworn affidavits. No showing was made by Respondents to the trial court that any of the exceptions of [Fla.R.Civ.P.] 1.280(b) applied.  The court compelled production of these witness statements without conducting an in camera inspection to determine if the statements at issue were actually work product and without finding that Respondents would be unable to secure the equivalent without undue hardship. This constitutes a departure from the essential requirements of the law.” Selton v. Nelson, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 5th DCA, No. 5D15-3960, 10/14/2016), 2016 WL 6023927.


Fourth DCA denies criminal defendant’s petition to have subpoenas duces tecum issued secretly on work product grounds.  [Added 9/22/16]
A criminal defendant charged with murder petitioned the Fourth DCA for a writ of certiorari.  Defendant asserted that “he has a right to have these subpoenas for documents issued secretly to gather information potentially relevant to his defense, without revealing his defense strategy to the State.”  Specifically, Defendant “asserts that an attorney’s work product is fiercely protected and that the discovery rules should be interpreted to prevent the opposing party from benefitting from the investigation of its adversary. He recognizes that discovery cannot qualify as work product but asserts that the “selection process” of matters for discovery can reveal defense counsel’s mental impressions.”
The appellate court denied the petition.  “An attorney’s mere selection of documents to subpoena does not confer the status of work product upon the documents or the selection process any more than a lawyer’s decision to depose certain witnesses would allow the questioning to be conducted in secret. The discovery rules do not preclude speculation about an opponent’s theory of the case based on the discovery that has been sought.” Jackson v. State, __ So.3d __ (Fla. 4th DCA, No. 4D16-2357, 9/7/2016), 2016 WL 4649993.



Although client can be compelled to disclose when and with what lawyers she consulted, she cannot be required to divulge reasons why she consulted them if doing so would reveals attorney-client communications.
[Added 7/6/16]
Parents’ child was born at Hospital.  Two years later the child was diagnosed with cerebral palsy.  In April 2013, shortly before the child turned eight, Parents filed a petition to extend the statute of limitations for claims involving the child’s birth against Hospital and other medical providers.  Parents filed their malpractice suit in November 2013.
The applicable statute of limitations runs from the time the incident giving rise to the action “is discovered, or should have been discovered with the exercise of due diligence.”  F.S. 95.11(4)(b).  Defendants deposed Mother in an effort to find out when she first learned of a reasonable possibility that the child’s injury was caused by malpractice.  Defendants sought to discover “what lawyers [Mother] consulted regarding [the child’s] condition, when she consulted them, and why she consulted them.”  Mother testified that her current counsel was not the first lawyer she consulted, but refused to answer further questions on the basis of attorney-client privilege.
The trial court granted Defendants’ motion to compel, ordering Mother “to ‘answer all questions related to the following issues’: (a) ‘when she first sought legal counsel’; (b) ‘the names of the attorneys whom she consulted with’; and (c) ‘the reasons why she first sought out legal counsel and any subsequent counsel.’”  Parents petitioned for a writ of certiorari.
The Fourth DCA quashed a portion of the order.  The court began its opinion by discussing the distinctions between the ethical duty of confidentiality expressed in Rule 4-1.6 and the evidentiary attorney-client privilege codified in F.S. 90.502.  Because the matter was in litigation, the relevant standard is the attorney-client privilege.
“The privilege protects only communications to and from a lawyer; it does not protect facts known by the client independent of any communication with the lawyer . . .”  (Citations omitted.)  Ordinarily, the attorney-client privilege does not apply to the fact of consultation with or employment of a lawyer.  Accordingly, the appellate court declined to quash the first two items listed in the trial court’s order to compel.  “[R]equiring [Mother] to reveal when and with whom she consulted for the general purpose of discussing possible legal remedies stemming from her daughter’s condition does not, on this record, implicate the attorney-client privilege. This is true even though she is revealing in general terms her purpose for scheduling and attending the consultation.”  The “general purpose” of a representation does not necessarily divulge a confidential professional communication.
In contrast, the third part of the trial court’s order was quashed.  It required Mother to “answer all questions related to . . . the reasons why she first sought out” legal counsel (emphasis by court).  “This part of the order allows inquiry into confidential communications between [Mother] and attorneys.  . . .  While [Mother] can be required to answer factual questions about what she learned at various points in time concerning the nature and potential causes of her daughter’s condition from sources other than the attorneys that she consulted, she cannot be forced to answer questions that would require her to reveal the contents of advice or information she received from the attorneys.”
  The court closed by noting that, unlike work product protection, there is no “undue hardship” exception to the attorney-client privilege. Coffey-Garcia v. South Miami Hospital, Inc., __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D15-1966, 6/22/2016), 2016 WL 3410415.
NOTE: For a similar result, see Mobley v. Homestead Hospital, Inc., __ So.3d __ (Fla. 3d DCA, No. 3D15-1902, 7/20/2016), 2016 WL 3911887 ("Certainly, Mobley can be asked and required to answer factual questions about what she learned at various points in time concerning the nature and potential causes of Tavarion’s condition from sources other than the attorneys she consulted. She can also be required to respond to questions concerning her intentions, thoughts and reasons for seeking legal counsel so long as those intentions, thoughts and reasons were not informed by
communications with counsel.").


Evidentiary hearing on claim for fees under F.S. 57.105 is appropriate, but claimant is not entitled to privileged information from opposing party or counsel to prove fee claim. [Added 4/3/16]
Tedrow sued Cannon in a dog bite case.  Cannon served Tedrow with a motion for attorney’s fees under F.S. 57.105, alleging that Tedrow’s complaint had no basis in fact or law.  After 21 days Cannon filed the motion with the court.  Tedrow later voluntarily dismissed her complaint.  Cannon moved for fees and “also asked the court to permit depositions on the issue of whether Tedrow’s counsel acted in good faith in filing the lawsuit.”  The court granted Cannon’s motion to compel the requested discovery.  Seeking to quash the order, Tedrow and her counsel petitioned the Second DCA for a writ of certiorari.
The appellate court granted the petition.  Although discovery regarding the 57.105 fee motion is appropriate, and an evidentiary hearing may be held to permit Cannon to present evidence supporting his fee claim, “he is not entitled to privileged information from Tedrow or her counsel in order to prove his claim for fees.  Section 90.502, Florida Statutes (2011), protects communications between Tedrow and her counsel.  “A client has a privilege to refuse to disclose, and to prevent any other person from disclosing, the contents of confidential communications when such other person learned of the communications because they were made in the rendition of legal services to the client.”  § 90.502(2).  None of the exceptions to the privilege in section 90.502 apply in this case.”  Even if the communication between Tedrow and her counsel are relevant to Cannon’s fee claim, in Genovese v. Provident Life & Accident Ins. Co., 74, So.3d 1064 (Fla. 2011), the Florida Supreme Court ruled that “there is no exception provided under section 90.502 that allows the discovery of attorney-client privileged communications where the requesting party has demonstrated need and undue hardship.”  Id., at 1068.  See also Tumelaire v. Naples Estates Homeowners Ass’n, Inc., 137 So.3d 596 (Fla. 2d DCA 2014); Quarles & Brady, LLP v. Birdsall, 802 So.2d 1205 (Fla. 2d DCA 2002). Tedrow v. Cannon, __ So.3d __ (Fla 2d DCA, No. 2D15-3405, 2/19/2016), 2016 WL 670348.


Supreme Court rules that opposing counsel’s time records are relevant and discoverable by party seeking to recover fees when fees are contested.  [Added 3/31/16] --
After Paton was injured in an auto accident, she sued her underinsured motorist carrier, GEICO.  She later added a bad faith claim.  Ultimately Paton recovered a jury verdict and moved for attorney’s fees from GEICO.  Paton sought discovery of opposing counsel’s billing records.  The trial court ordered GEICO to provide the records, but permitted it to “redact privileged information.”
GEICO petitioned for certiorari review, and the Fourth DCA quashed the production order.  GEICO General Ins. Co. v. Paton, 133 So.3d 1071 (Fla. 4th DCA 2014).  Paton then sought Supreme Court review, which the Court granted based on its conflict jurisdiction “to clarify the relevance of the time expended by opposing counsel to the issue of reasonable hours for a party who is entitled to payment of his or her attorney’s fees when the fees are contested.”
The Supreme Court quashed the Fourth DCA’s decision.  “We agree with the rationale of the First District in Anderson Columbia [v. Brown, 902 So.2d 838 (Fla. 1st DCA 2005)] and conclude that the billing records of opposing counsel are relevant to the issue of reasonableness of time expended in a claim for attorney’s fees, and their discovery falls within the discretion of the trial court when the fees are contested.  When a party files for attorney’s fees against an insurance company pursuant to sections 624.155 and 627.428, Florida Statutes, as occurred here, the billing records of the defendant insurance company are relevant.  The hours expended by the attorneys for the insurance company will demonstrate the complexity of the case along with the time expended, and may belie a claim that the number of hours spent by the plaintiff was unreasonable, or that the plaintiff is not entitled to a full lodestar computation, including a multiplying factor.”
Regarding the question of privilege, the Court stated:  “Moreover, the entirety of the billing records are not privileged, and where the trial court specifically states that any privileged information may be redacted, the plaintiff should not be required to make an additional special showing to obtain the remaining relevant, non-privileged information.  Additionally, even if the amount of time spent defending a claim was privileged, this information would be available only from the defendant insurance company, and the plaintiff has necessarily satisfied the second prong of the test delineated by [Fla.R.Civ.P.] 1.280(b)(4) for the discovery of privileged information – i.e., the information or its substantial equivalent cannot be obtained by other means without undue hardship.” Paton v. GEICO General Ins. Co., __ So.3d __ (Fla., No. SC14-282, 3/24/2016), 2016 WL 1163372.


Court erred ruling that condo association waived its attorney-client privilege by disclosing documents to association's agents, where court failed to conduct in camera inspection of documents. [Added 12/24/15] -- Las Olas River House Condominium Ass’n, Inc. v. Lorh, LLC, 181 So.3d 556 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015).


Court erred in ordering production of photos over work product objections without holding evidentiary hearing. [Added 11/20/15] -- City of Port St. Lucie v. Follano, 177 So.3d 301 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015). 


Court departed from essential requirements of law by ordering production of certain documents based on crime-fraud exception without holding evidentiary hearing. [Added 11/2/15] -- Brannon v. Palcu, 177 So.3d 693 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015).
 


Court erred in compelling production of work product photos where there had been no showing that party seeking discovery diligently tried to get substantial equivalent through other means.
  [Added 10/1/15] -- Seaboard Marine Ltd. v. Clark, 174 So.3d 626 (Fla. 3d DCA 2015).



Court erred in ordering production of those portions of expert’s written opinion that were not relevant to claims at issue in that suit. [Added 7/14/15] -- SCI Funeral Services of Florida, Inc. v. Walthour, 165 So.3d 861 (Fla. 1st DCA 2015).


Statements made in affidavit filed in pending judicial proceeding were protected by absolute privilege from defamation claim.
[Added 7/1/15] -- Zuccarelli v. Barfield, 165 So.3d 830 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015).


Court erred in ordering party’s lawyer, who was not counsel of record, deposed. 
[Added 6/18/15] -- Eller-I.T.O. Stevedoring Co., LLC v. Pandolfo, 173 So.3d 994 (Fla. 3d DCA 2015) (on motion for clarification).

 
Court erred in ordering production of claims management services company’s case file over work product and attorney-client privilege objections; work product retains qualified protection applies regardless of whether subsequent litigation is related.
  [Added 5/19/15] -- Sedgwick Claims Management Services, Inc. v. Feller, 163 So.3d 1252 (Fla. 5th DCA 2015).


Court correctly overruled attorney-client privilege objections to questions asked at hearing to enforce alleged settlement, because privilege was waived when objecting party put at issue question of its lawyer’s authority to settle. 
[Added 4/27/15] -- Lender Processing Services, Inc. v. Arch Ins. Co., 183 So.3d 1052 (Fla. 1st DCA 2015).


Mental health evaluation report prepared by a criminal defendant’s privately retained expert is protected by attorney-client privilege despite Fla.R.Crim.P. 3.220.
  [Added 4/26/15] -- Manuel v. State, 162 So.3d 1157 (Fla. 5th DCA 2015).


Court erred in compelling production of attorney-client privileged documents based on relevance and need by opponent. [Added 4/19/15] -- Florida Power & Light Co. v. Hicks, 162 So.3d 1074 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015).

Joint defense agreement does not have to be in writing in order for communication to be protected by attorney-client privilege. [Added 4/4/15] --  AG Beaumont 1, LLC v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., 160 So.3d 510 (Fla. 2d DCA 2015).


Attorney-client privilege might not be waived when person within ambit of privilege uses outside person to receive emailed communication. [Added 4/4/15] -- AG Beaumont 1, LLC v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., 160 So.3d 510 (Fla. 2d DCA 2015).


Quarterly Safety Committee Reports prepared by mall where slip and fall occurred protected from discovery as work product.
[Added 2/13/15] -- Millard Mall Services, Inc. v. Bolda, 155 So.3d 1272 (Fla. 4th DCA 2015).


In paternity and child support action, court erred in ordering production of settlement agreements involving non-party clients of law firm employing lawyer/mother.
[Added 2/12/15] -- Medina v. Haddad, 156 So.3d 1113 (Fla. 3d DCA 2015).


Whether offer of judgment was made in good faith is based on objective criteria, and claim for fees based on offer does not waive attorney-client privilege or work product protection. [Added 12/29/14] -- Butler v. Harter, 152 So.3d 705 (Fla. 1st DCA 2014).

By filing action to reform contract to accurate reflect parties intent, party seeking reformation does not automatically waive attorney-client privilege.
[Added 12/9/14] -- Markel American Ins. Co. v. Baker, 152 So.3d 86 (Fla. 5th DCA 2014).


Third DCA upholds order requiring production of law firm’s trust account wire receipt records over attorney-client privilege objections.
[Added 11/5/14] -- Sweetapple, Broeker & Varkas, P.L. v. Simmon, 151 So.3d 42 (Fla. 3d DCA 2014).



Fourth DCA quashes order allowing discovery of litigation file of insurer’s counsel in bad faith action.
[Added 10/28/14] -- GEICO General Ins. Co. v. Moultrop, 148_ So.3d 1284 (Fla. 4th DCA 2014).


Law firm’s defamation suit against former partner dismissed as barred under absolute litigation privilege, notwithstanding non-disparagement agreement.
[Added 10/8/14] -- James v. Leigh, 145 So.2d 1006 (Fla. 1st DCA 9/5/2014).

In third-party bad faith suit, attorney-client privilege may apply to protect communications between insurer and its counsel, per Fifth DCA.
[Added 9/12/14] -- Boozer v. Stalley, 146 So.3d 139 (Fla. 5th DCA 2014).


Court erred in ordering production of privileged documents based on crime-fraud exception without first holding evidentiary hearing.
[Added 8/4/14] -- Merco Group of the Palm Beaches, Inc. v. McGregor, 162 So.3d 49 (Fla. 4th DCA 2014).



In coverage dispute, trial court erred in ordering production of insurer's claim file from closed claim over insureds work product objection.
[Added 7/18/14] -- State Farm Fla. Ins. Co. v. Marascuillo, 161 So.3d 493 (Fla. 5th DCA 2014).


Second DCA rules that client's fee arrangements with her lawyer are protected by client privilege.
[Added 5/21/14] -- Tumelaire v. Naples Estates Homeowners Ass’n, Inc., 137 So.3d 596_ (Fla. 2d DCA 2014).


Dismissal of defamation counterclaim arising out of statements made to a potential witness due to the qualified litigation privilege is affirmed by the Fourth DCA. [Added 4/29/14] -- Pomfret v. Atkinson, 137 So.3d 1161 (Fla. 4th DCA 2014).


Handwritten draft answers to interrogatories provided by a client to her lawyer are attorney-client privileged communications.
[Added 4/23/14] -- Montanez v. Publix Super Markets, Inc., 135 So.3d 510 (Fla. 5th DCA 2014).



Reversing Third DCA, Supreme Court applies “hot potato rule” in ordering disqualification of lawyers for violating conflict of interest rules -- even though lawyers were not "direct counsel" of some affiants who urged disqualification due to exposure to confidential information.
[Added 4/7/14]
See discussion under "Conflicts of Interest" section. Young v. Achenbauch, 136 So.3d 575 (Fla., No. SC12-988, 3/27/2014).


Although its motion for protective order was denied, insurer may file privilege log before producing documents.
  [Added 2/14/14]  -- State Farm Florida Ins. Co. v. Coburn, 136 So.3d 711 (Fla. 2d DCA 2014). 

Statement taken by investigator for defendant’s insurer in negligence case was work product and court erred in ordering its production.  [Added 11/10/13]  --  International House of Pancakes (IHOP) v. Robinson, 124 So.3d 1004 (Fla. 4th DCA 11/6/2013). 

Court correctly ruled that inadvertent disclosure did not waive work product privilege but was premature in disqualifying recipient.  [Added 8/14/13]  --  Construction Systems of America, Inc. v. Travelers Casualty & Surety Co. of America, 118 So.3d 342 (Fla. 3d DCA 8/7/2013). 

Board of Governors approves ethics opinion regarding lawyers’ use of “cloud computing.”  [Added 8/7/13]    In July 2013 the Florida Bar Board of Governors approved Florida Ethics Opinion 12-3.  The opinion concludes that it is ethically permissible for lawyers to use “cloud computing” if they take reasonable precautions to protect confidential information.  The final paragraph of Opinion 12-3 summarizes: “[L]awyers may use cloud computing if they take reasonable precautions to ensure that confidentiality of client information is maintained, that the service provider maintains adequate security, and that the lawyer has adequate access to the information stored remotely.  The lawyer should research the service provider to be used.” 

Litigation privilege applies to protect lawyers from claims for abuse of process and malicious prosecution.  [Added 7/23/13]  --  Wolfe v. Foreman, 128 So.3d 67 (Fla. 3d DCA 7/17/2013). 

Court erred in excluding from evidence portion of public record containing investigator’s “mental impressions.”  [Added 7/19/13]  --  City of Avon Park v. State, 117 So.3d 470 (Fla. 2d DCA 7/17/2013). 

Per Third DCA, there is no “dependency exception” to attorney-client privilege to justify requiring minor’s attorneys ad litem to disclose his whereabouts.  [Added 6/24/13]  -- R.L.R. v. State, 116 So.3d 570 (Fla. 3d DCA 6/19/2013). 

Criminal defendant unsuccessful in asserting that results of blood alcohol test are protected as work product.  [Added 6/18/13]  --  Kidder v. State, 117 So.3d 1166 (Fla. 2d DCA 6/12/2013). 

Defendant in high-profile murder case is permitted to take deposition of lawyer who interviewed “potentially crucial” witness.  [Added 6/12/13]  -- Zimmerman v. State, 114 So.3d 446 (Fla. 5th DCA 6/7/2013). 

Former client whose disqualification motion was denied cannot obtain certiorari relief where lawyer “adamantly denied receiving any confidences.”  [Added 6/10/13]  -- McCormack v. Russell, 114 So.3d 456 (Fla. 4th DCA 6/5/2013). 

“Unfair informational advantage” standard for disqualification does not apply where lawyer represents different clients against same opposing party in unrelated matters.  [Added 5/20/13]  --  Miccosukee Tribe of Indians v. Lehtinen, 114 So.3d 319 (Fla. 3d DCA 5/15/2013). 

Court erred in ruling that party waived work product and attorney-client privilege objections to discovery request by not filing privilege log.  [Added 4/26/13]  --  DLJ Mortgage Capital, Inc. v. Fox, 112 So.3d 644 (Fla. 4th DCA 4/24/2013). 

Court applied wrong legal standard regarding who had authority to waive corporation’s attorney-client privilege.  [Added 4/16/13]  --  Rogan v. Oliver, 110 So.3d 980 (Fla. 2d DCA 4/10/2013). 

Court erred in ordering production of documents over attorney-client privilege objection without first reviewing them in camera to determine if privilege applied.  [Added 4/11/13]  --  Patrowicz v. Wolff, 110 So.3d 973 (Fla. 2d DCA 4/5/2013). 

Court’s order allowing one party to depose opposing party’s lawyers did not depart from essential requirements of law.  [Added 3/20/13]  --  Allstate Ins. Co. v. Total Rehab and Medical Centers, Inc., 123 So.3d 1162 (Fla. 4th DCA 3/13/2013). 

Per Florida Supreme Court, only qualified litigation privilege applies to statements made by lawyer during ex parte, out-of-court questioning of potential witness.  [Added 2/20/13]  --  DelMonico v. Traynor, 116 So.3d 1205 (Fla. 2/14/2013). 

Order compelling production over work product objection is quashed due to absence of findings justifying production.  [Added 1/17/13]  --  Magical Cruise Co. Ltd. v. Turk, 114 So.3d 233 (Fla. 5th DCA 1/11/2013). 

Supreme Court holds that physician-patient confidentiality law bars ex parte meetings between nonparty treating physician and lawyer hired by her insurer.  [Added 12/21/12]  -- Hasan v. Garvar, 108 So.3d 570 (Fla. 2012). 

Court erred in disqualifying wife’s counsel in divorce case based on receipt of confidential information allegedly improperly obtained from husband’s computer regarding different suit.  [Added 12/5/12]  --  Strawcutter v. Strawcutter, 101 So.3d 417 (Fla. 5th DCA 2012). 

Court erred in ordering alleged bad faith production of insurer’s claims file materials before coverage dispute was resolved.  [Added 12/4/12]  -- State Farm Florida Ins. Co. v. Aloni, 101 So.3d 412 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012). 

Third DCA addresses standard for disqualification when lawyers receive inadvertently disclosed confidential information.  [Added 8/23/12]  --  Moriber v. Dreiling, 95 So.3d 449 (Fla. 3d DCA 2012). 

Court erred in allowing discovery of opposing counsel’s billing records to support claim for fee award.  [Added 8/15/12]  --  Estilien v. Dyda, 93 So.3d 1186 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012). 

Fourth DCA holds that grocery store’s incident reports prepared after customer’s slip and fall are protected by work product privilege.  [Added 8/1/12]  --  Publix Super Markets, Inc. v. Anderson, 92 So.3d 922 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012). 

Finding additional violation and imposing harsher discipline than sought by Bar, Supreme Court suspends lawyer who breached client confidentiality.  [Added 7/13/12]  --  Florida Bar v. Knowles, 99 So.3d 918 (Fla. 2012).

Court erred in ordering production of information gathered in risk management investigation over work product objections.  [Added 7/3/12]  --  Heartland Express, Inc., of Iowa v. Torres, 90 So.3d 365 (Fla. 1st DCA 2012). 

Court erred in ruling that all of client’s communications with her attorney were not privileged as a matter of law because non-client was present for 60-65% of them.  [Added 4/7/12]  --  Witte v. Witte, 126 So.3d 1076 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012). 

Certiorari does not lie to prevent in camera review of documents listed on privilege log.  [Added 3/16/12]  --  Bennett v. Berges, 84 So.3d 373 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012). 

Protective order allowing plaintiff's counsel to share confidential discovery with lawyers who have similar cases against same defendant quashed.  [Added 12/26/11]  --  Wal-Mart Stores East, L.P. v. Endicott, 81 So.3d 486 (Fla. 1st DCA 2011).

Supreme Court suspends lawyer for 3 years rather than 90 days; confidentiality gives way to fiduciary obligations when holding money in trust for non-client.  [Added 12/13/11]  --  Florida Bar v. Watson, 76 So.3d 915 (Fla. 2011). 

Order finding waiver of attorney-client and work product privilege objections due to "untimely" filing of privilege log is reversed.  [Added 11/9/11]  --  Fifth Third Bank v. ACA Plus, Inc., 73 So.3d 850 (Fla. 5th DCA 2011). 

Litigation privilege applies to cause of action for abuse of process, and lack of subject matter jurisdiction does not preclude application of privilege.  [Added 10/24/11]  --  LatAm Investments, LLC v. Holland & Knight, LLP, 88 So.3d 240 (Fla. 3d DCA 2011). 

Law firm disqualified from representing bank against guarantor due to unfair informational advantage gained by simultaneously representing  guarantor's former lawyer in related malpractice suit.  [Added 9/28/11]  --  Frye v. Ironstone Bank, 69 So.3d 1046 (Fla. 2d DCA 2011). 

Court erred in ordering production of party's claim file prior to deposition to refresh memory of witness who was formerly employed by party.  [Added 9/28/11]  --  Racetrac Petroleum, Inc. v. Cooper, 69 So.3d 1077 (Fla. 5th DCA 2011). Court erred in ordering redaction of all opinions "no matter by whom made" from Amendment 7 adverse medical incident reports.  [Added 8/24/11]  --  Acevedo v. Doctors Hospital, Inc., 68 So.3d 949 (Fla. 3d DCA 2011). 

Statements posted on internet website by party to litigation are not protected by litigation privilege.  [Added 8/1/11]  --  Ball v. D'Lites Enterprises, Inc., 65 So.3d 637 (Fla. 4th DCA 2011). 

Court erred in ruling that crime-fraud exception to attorney-client privilege applied without first holding evidentiary hearing.  [Added 7/6/11]  -- Armoyan v. Armoyan, 64 So.3d 198 (Fla. 4th DCA 2011). 

Florida Bar Board of Governors approves ethics opinion addressing how decedent's lawyer should respond to requests for confidential information.  [Added 4/4/11]    In March 2011 the Florida Bar Board of Governors approved an advisory opinion published by the Bar's Professional Ethics Committee.  Florida Ethics Opinion 10-3 addresses the ethical issues faced by a lawyer who represented a decedent, but does not represent the personal representative, and is later asked for confidential client information relating to the decedent by someone such as the personal representative, a beneficiary, or an heir.    The headnote to Opinion 10-3 summarizes the opinion:  "A lawyer’s ethical obligations regarding a request for confidential information of a deceased client by the personal representative, beneficiaries or heirs-at-law of a decedent’s estate, or their counsel, will vary depending on the circumstances.  A lawyer may disclose confidential information to serve the deceased client’s interests, unless the deceased client previously instructed the lawyer not to disclose the information.  Whether and what information may be disclosed will depend on who is making the request, the information sought, and other factors.  Doubt should be resolved in favor of nondisclosure.  When compelled to disclose information via subpoena, a lawyer must disclose all information sought that is not privileged, and raise privilege as to any information for which there is a good faith basis to do so." 

Court erred in ordering production in bad faith case of insurer's entire claim file over privilege and work product objections.  [Added 3/27/11]  --  State Farm Florida Ins. Co. v. Puig, 62 So.3d 23 (Fla. 3d DCA 2011).

Supreme Court rules that attorney-client privileged communications are not discoverable in first-party bad faith action.  [Added 3/19/11]  -- Genovese v. Provident Life and Accident Ins. Co., 74 So.3d 1064 (Fla. 2011).

 Although defendant's incident reports were protected by work product privilege, facts on which they were based were not.  [Added 2/28/11]  -- Universal City Development Partners, Ltd. v. Pupillo, 54 So.3d 612 (Fla. 5th DCA 2011).

Supreme Court declines to amend Evidence Code to address inadvertent disclosure of privileged materials.  [Added 1/13/11]  --  In re: Amendments to the Florida Evidence Code, 53 So.3d 1019 (Fla. 2011). 

Amendments to Fed.R.Civ.P. 26 effective Dec. 1, 2010, extend work product protection for expert witness reports and communications.  [Added 1/3/11]  --    Amendments to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26 that took effect on December 1, 2010, expand work product protection available in the case of expert witnesses.  Under the new version of the rule, work product protection now extends to drafts of expert reports as well as communications (written or oral) between lawyers and experts. 

Lawyer's agreement not to represent anyone against the law firm that formerly employed him does not violate public policy.  [Added 1/3/11]  --  Alan B. Garfinkel, P.A. v. Mager, 57 So.3d 221 (Fla. 5th DCA 2010). 

Florida Bar approves opinion requiring lawyers to protect confidentiality of client information stored on devices like copiers, scanners, fax machines, cell phones, and flash drives.  [Added 12/16/10]    In December 2010 the Florida Bar Board of Governors approved Florida Ethics Opinion 10-2, which had been promulgated earlier in the year by the Bar's Professional Ethics Committee.  Opinion 10-2 addresses the ethical obligations of a lawyer who uses electronic devices that store information.  These "Devices" may include "computers, printers, copiers, scanners, cellular phones, personal digital assistants ('PDA’s'), flash drives, memory sticks, facsimile machines and other electronic or digital devices."    The opinion discusses ethical duties of competence (citing Rule 4-1.1), confidentiality (Rule 4-1.6), and supervision (Rule 4-5.3).  Significantly, the opinion applies these duties to situations and circumstances that arise outside of a lawyer's office, such as hotels and copy centers.   
Competence.  Opinion 10-2 states:  "If a lawyer chooses to use these Devices that contain Storage Media, the lawyer has a duty to keep abreast of changes in technology to the extent that the lawyer can identify potential threats to maintaining confidentiality.  The lawyer must learn such details as whether the Device has the ability to store confidential information, whether the information can be accessed by unauthorized parties, and who can potentially have access to the information.  The lawyer must also be aware of different environments in which confidential information is exposed such as public copy centers, hotel business centers, and home offices.  The lawyer should obtain enough information to know when to seek protection and what Devices must be sanitized, or cleared of all confidential information, before disposal or other disposition.  Therefore, the duty of competence extends from the receipt, i.e., when the lawyer obtains control of the Device, through the Device’s life cycle, and until disposition of the Device, including after it leaves the control of the lawyer."   
Confidentiality.  Opinion 10-2 states:  "A lawyer must ensure confidentiality by taking reasonable steps to protect all confidential information under the lawyer’s control.  Those reasonable steps include identifying areas where confidential information could be potentially exposed."    Duty to supervise others.  Opinion 10-2 states:  "A lawyer’s supervisory responsibility extends not only to the lawyer’s own employees but over entities outside the lawyer’s firm with whom the lawyer contracts to assist in the care and maintenance of the Devices in the lawyer’s control.  If a nonlawyer will have access to confidential information, the lawyer must obtain adequate assurances from the nonlawyer that confidentiality of the information will be maintained."    Importantly for lawyers, these ethical obligations extend to "sanitization" of Devices no longer being used, such as old copiers or discarded cell phones.  "A lawyer has a duty to obtain adequate assurances that the Device has been stripped of all confidential information before disposition of the Device.  If a vendor or other service provider is involved in the sanitization of the Device, such as at the termination of a lease agreement or upon sale of the Device, it is not sufficient to merely obtain an agreement that the vendor will sanitize the Device upon sale or turn back of the Device.  The lawyer has an affirmative obligation to ascertain that the sanitization has been accomplished, whether by some type of meaningful confirmation, by having the sanitization occur at the lawyer’s office, or by other similar means.  Further, a lawyer should use care when using Devices in public places such as at copy centers, hotel business centers, and outside offices where the lawyer and those under the lawyer’s supervision have little or no control.  In such situations, the lawyer should inquire and determine whether use of such Devices would preserve confidentiality under these rules."   
The headnote published with Opinion 10-2 summarizes the opinion this way:  "A lawyer who chooses to use Devices that contain Storage Media such as printers, copiers, scanners, and facsimile machines must take reasonable steps to ensure that client confidentiality is maintained and that the Device is sanitized before disposition, including: (1) identification of the potential threat to confidentiality along with the development and implementation of policies to address the potential threat to confidentiality; (2) inventory of the Devices that contain Hard Drives or other Storage Media; (3) supervision of nonlawyers to obtain adequate assurances that confidentiality will be maintained; and (4) responsibility for sanitization of the Device by requiring meaningful assurances from the vendor at the intake of the Device and confirmation or certification of the sanitization at the disposition of the Device." 

Information known to opposing party as a result of settlement in unrelated suit not protected by attorney-client privilege.  [Added 12/7/10]  --  Neiman v. Naseer, 47 So.3d 954 (Fla. 4th DCA 2010). 

JCC's order requiring claimant to produce intake documents created by his lawyer is reversed due to attorney-client privilege.  [Added 9/22/10]  --  Hagans v. Gatorland Kubota, LLC / Sentry Ins., 45 So.3d 73 (Fla. 1st DCA 2010).

Supreme Court adopts a Rule of Civil Procedure addressing inadvertent disclosure of privileged materials.  [Added 9/10/10]    The Supreme Court, acting on the regular-cycle report of proposed amendments filed by the Florida Bar Civil Procedure Rules Committee, adopted a new rule specifically addressing inadvertent disclosure of privileged materials.  The rule initially was suggested by the Bar's Attorney-Client Privilege Task Force.    New Florida Rule of Civil Procedure 1.285 authorizes a party who has inadvertently disclosed privileged materials to "thereafter assert any privilege recognized by law as to those materials."  The assertion must be made "within 10 days of actually discovering the inadvertent disclosure."  The rule establishes the procedure for making the assertion of privilege, the duties of the party receiving notice of the allegedly advertent disclosure, the recipient's right to challenge assertion of the privilege, and the content and effect of the court's order on the issue.    The Court, however, declined to adopt the part of the proposed rule setting out factors for the court to consider in resolving a dispute over whether the materials are privileged.  The Court stated that this rejected portion of the proposed rule "may address an issue of substantive law that is not appropriately addressed in a rule of procedure."  The Court "express[ed] no opinion on the substance of the committee's proposal in this regard."    The new rule becomes effective on January 1, 2011.  In re: Amendments to the Florida Rules of Civil Procedure, 52 So.3d 579 (Fla. 2010).

Security video and photos of department store accident scene not protected from disclosure as work product.  [Added 7/30/10]  -- Target Corp. v. Vogel, 41 So.3d 962 (Fla. 4th DCA 2010). 

Allegedly defamatory statements made by lawyer during potential witness interviews are absolutely privileged, per Fourth DCA.   [Added 6/28/10]  -- DelMonico v. Traynor, 50 So.3d 4 (Fla. 4th DCA 2010). 

Trial court erred in ordering lawyer to produce his file on separate, unrelated case in which he was representing same client.  [Added 4/1/10]  --  Toledo v. Publix Super Markets, Inc., 30 So.3d 712 (Fla. 4th DCA 2010). 

Law firm disqualified based on unfair informational or tactical advantage obtained through receipt of opposing party's privileged materials.  [Added 2/12/10]  --  Castellano v. Winthrop, 27 So.3d 134 (Fla. 5th DCA 2010). 

First DCA discusses balancing test involved in determining whether "undue hardship" exception to work product privilege applies.  [Added 1/4/10]  --  Paradise Pines Health Care Associates, LLC v. Estate of Benekin, 27 So.3d 83 (Fla. 1st DCA 2009). 

Trial court misapplied "relevant circumstances test" factors in determining that inadvertent disclosure waived attorney-client privilege.  [Added 1/4/10]  --  Nova Southeastern University, Inc. v. Jacobson, 25 So.3d 82 (Fla. 4th DCA 2009). 

Non-party seeking protective order for confidential information not required to file privilege log.  [Added 1/4/10]  --  Westco, Inc. v. Scott Lewis' Gardening & Trimming, Inc., 26 So.3d 620 (Fla. 4th DCA 2009). 

Trial court erred in ordering disclosure of documents based on alleged waiver of attorney-client privilege without conducting in camera review or delineating scope of waiver.  [Added 12/2/09]  --  Alliant Ins. Services, Inc. v. Riemer Ins. Group, 22 So.3d 779 (Fla. 4th DCA 2009). 

Trial court erred by denying defendant's motion to compel deposition of plaintiff's counsel, who was potential material witness.  [Added 9/14/09]  -- Nucci v. Simmons, 20 So.3d 388 (Fla. 2d DCA 2009). 

Party does not waive attorney-client and work product privileges merely by transmitting privileged documents to its own expert witness.  [Added 7/25/09]  --  Mullins v. Tompkins, 15 So.3d 798 (Fla. 1st DCA 2009). 

Party's possession of allegedly privileged documents does not require disqualification, where those documents were voluntarily disclosed to someone else in different proceeding.  [Added 6/21/09]  -- Walker v. River City Logistics, Inc., 14 So.3d 1122 (Fla. 1st DCA 2009). 

Former client who gives deposition in suit for unpaid fees filed by her former lawyers waives attorney-client privilege, thus making that testimony available in other litigation.  [Added 6/5/09]  ---  S & I Investments v. Payless Flea Market, Inc., 10 So.3d 699 (Fla. 4th DCA 2009). 

Adverse medical incident reports not protected from discovery as fact work product, but may be protected as opinion work product.  [Added 6/5/09]  --  Florida Eye Clinic, P.A. v. Gmach, 14 So.3d 1044 (Fla. 5th DCA 2009). 

To successfully assert work product protection corporation must show that documents were prepared in anticipation of specific litigation matter.  [Added 4/20/09]  -- Neighborhood Health Partnership, Inc. v. Peter F. Merkle, M.D., P.A., 8 So.3d 1180 (Fla. 4th DCA 2009). 

Insurer successfully asserts attorney-client privilege in first-party statutory bad faith action.  [Added 4/5/09]  --  West Bend Mutual Ins. Co. v. Higgins, 9 So.3d 655 (Fla. 5th DCA 2009). 

Second DCA quashes order requiring production of items in insurer's claims file during coverage dispute.  [Added 3/17/09]  --  Seminole Casualty Ins. Co. v. Mastrominas, 6 So.3d 1256 (Fla. 2d DCA 2009). 

Third DCA quashes two discovery orders that would have resulted in disclosure of information protected by attorney-client and work product privileges.  [Added 12/11/08]  --  Ford Motor Co. v. Hall-Edwards, 997 So.2d 1148 (Fla. 3d DCA 2008). 

Plaintiff compelled to produce work product photos of slip-and-fall site under "undue hardship" exception.  [Added 12/8/08]  --  Kmart Corp. v. Sundmacher, 997 So.2d 1158 (Fla. 3d DCA 2008). 

Congress passed and President Bush signed into law new Federal Rule of Evidence 502, concerning inadvertent waiver of attorney-client privilege.  [Added 9/25/08]  --  On September 19, 2008, President Bush signed into law legislation creating Federal Rule of Evidence 502.  The new rule limits the circumstances under which inadvertent disclosure of information results in waiver of the attorney-client privilege or work product protection.  The new rule applies to all proceedings commenced after it was signed.

Communications with lawyers seeking political, rather than legal, advice not protected by attorney-client privilege.  [Added 9/16/08]  --  Valliere v. Florida Elections Commission, 989 So.2d 1242 (Fla. 4th DCA 2008).

Trial court erred in not conditionally sealing financial records of doctor whose practice is limited to treating patients involved in personal injury litigation.  [Added 7/21/08]  --  Nucci v. Nucci, 987 So.2d 135 (Fla. 2d DCA 2008). 

Trial court erred in requiring production of privileged documents used by witness to refresh recollection prior to testifying at deposition.  [Added 7/8/08]  -- Proskauer Rose LLP v. Boca Airport, Inc., 987 So.2d 116 (Fla. 4th DCA 2008). 

Trial court departed from essential requirements of law in ruling that attorney-client privilege did not protect letter to plaintiffs from law firm regarding statute of limitations.  [Added 6/27/08]  --  Samuel v. Shands Teaching Hospital and Clinics, Inc., 984 So.2d 627 (Fla. 1st DCA 2008). 

Lawyer's advice to client regarding applicable statute of limitations not protected by attorney-client privilege.  [Added 5/29/08]  --  Waffle House v. Scharmen, 981 So.2d 1266 (Fla. 1st DCA 2008). 

Trial court's order requiring production of insurer's allegedly privileged claim and underwriting files is quashed.  [Added 3/11/08]  --  State Farm Mutual Auto. Ins. Co. v. O'Hearn, 975 So.2d 633 (Fla. 2d DCA 2008). 

Order requiring disclosure of expert names and opinions over work product objections is reversed due to lack of evidence of need or undue hardship by party seeking disclosure.  [Added 3/3/08]  --  Taylor v. Penske Truck Leasing Corp., 975 So.2d 588 (Fla. 1st DCA 2008). 

"Attorney-Client Privilege Protection Act of 2007" passes U.S. House of Representatives.  [Added 11/16/07]  --  "Attorney-Client Privilege Protection Act of 2007," H.R. 3013, was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on November 12, 2007. 

Trial court must hold evidentiary hearing before compelling testimony on basis of crime-fraud exception to attorney-client privilege.  [Added 11/9/07]  -- BNP Paribas v. Wynne, 967 So.2d 1065 (Fla. 4th DCA 2007). 

Discovery order requiring production of documents supporting specific allegations of plaintiff's complaint quashed due to work product privilege.  [Added 10/7/07]  --  Hargroves v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 993 So.2d 978 (Fla. 2d DCA 2007). 

Transcript of insured's examination under oath taken by insurance company is protected from third parties by attorney-client privilege.  [Added 8/31/07]  --  Reynolds v. State, 963 So.2d 908 (Fla. 2d DCA 2007). 

Store's documents relating to its "civil theft recovery program" involving suspected shoplifters protected from discovery by work product privilege.  [Added 7/18/07]  --  Publix Supermarkets, Inc. v. Johnson, 959 So.2d 1274 (Fla. 4th DCA 2007). 

Lawyer who breaches client confidentiality after attorney-client relationship has ended may be liable to client for malpractice, but client must allege what confidence was breached.  [Added 6/25/07]  --  Elkind v. Bennett, 958 So.2d 1088 (Fla. 4th DCA 2007). 

Fourth DCA relaxes stance on entertaining certiorari petitions that seek review of trial court orders denying discovery.  [Added 6/23/07]  --  Power Plant Entertainment, LLC v. Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Development Co., 958 So.2d 565 (Fla. 4th DCA 2007) (en banc).

 JCC erred by ordering claimant to make non-testifying expert available for deposition over work product objections; no privilege log required.  [Added 6/9/07]  --  Nevin v. Palm Beach County School Board, 958 So.2d 1003 (Fla. 1st DCA 2007).

In bad faith case brought by third party (not the insured), trial court erred in ruling as matter of law that attorney-client privilege did not apply to communications made by insurer and insured with their counsel.  [Added 5/9/07]  --  Progressive Express Ins. Co. v. Scoma, 975 So.2d 461 (Fla. 2d DCA 2007). 

Husband's statement to lawyer that husband intended to kill his wife was not privileged because husband did not make the statement in context of seeking legal advice from lawyer.  [Added 4/4/07]  --  State v. Branham, 952 So.2d 618 (Fla. 2d DCA 2007). 

Trial court permits plaintiff to depose defendants' law firm in effort to prove that court has jurisdiction, despite attorney-client and work product privilege objections.  [Added 2/15/07]  --  Marbulk Shipping, Inc. v. Bhagat, 950 So.2d 380 (Fla. 3d DCA 2007).

Supreme Court concludes that litigation privilege applies in all causes of action, statutory as well as common law.  [Added 2/5/07]  --  Echevarria, McCalla, Raymer, Barrett & Frappier v. Cole, 950 So.2d 380 (Fla. 2007). 

Lawyer who formerly represented client but moved to new firm remains subject to irrefutable presumption that confidences were acquired; Rule 4-1.9 (rather than 4-1.10) governs disqualification issue.  [Added 12/20/06]  --  Health Care and Retirement Corp. of America, Inc. v. Bradley, 944 So.2d 508 (Fla. 4th DCA 2006) (on rehearing). 

Attorney-client privilege not waived merely due to filing of action for indemnification.  [Added 11/16/06]  -- irgin Records America, Inc. v. Skystream, Inc., 941 So.2d 501 (Fla. 3d DCA 2006). 

Clients' suit against former lawyers over their advice in transaction was not waiver of privilege as to communications between clients and other professionals who helped in same transaction.  [Added 10/27/06]  --  Coates v. Akerman, Senterfitt & Eidson, P.A., 940 So.2d 504 (Fla. 2d DCA 2006). 

Order requiring parties to produce either privilege log or all documents relied upon to support claim reversed as overbroad.  [Added 10/18/06]  --  Kranias v. Tsiogas, 941 So.2d 1173 (Fla. 2d DCA 2006). 

In first-party bad faith case, court should not have required production of insurer's entire claims file over attorney-client privilege objection; question certified to Florida Supreme Court.  [Added 10/9/06]  --  Liberty Mutual Fire Ins. Co. v. Bennett, 939 So.2d 1113 (Fla. 4th DCA 2006).  NOTE:  See also Provident Life & Accident Ins. Co. v. Genovese, 943 So.2d 321 (Fla. 4th DCA 2006). 

Party may respond to discovery request by producing documents pursuant to express limited waiver of attorney-client and work product privileges.  [Added 10/3/06]  --  Paradise Divers, Inc. v. Upmal, 943 So.2d 812 (Fla. 3d DCA 2006). 

Failure to file privilege log while awaiting ruling on objection to discovery request as burdensome did not result in waiver of privilege.  [Added 9/25/06]  --  Gosman v. Luzinski, 937 So.2d 293 (Fla. 4th DCA 2006). 

Work product privilege protects incident reports prepared in anticipation of litigation, even if also used for other purposes.  [Added 6/9/06]  --  Marshalls of MA, Inc. v. Minsal, 932 So.2d 444 (Fla. 3d DCA 2006). 

Trial court erred in compelling production of attorney-client privileged claim file documents in first-party bad faith case.  [Added 5/2/06]  --  XL Specialty Ins. Co. v. Aircraft Holdings, LLC, 929 So.2d 578 (Fla. 1st DCA 2006). 

Insurer's claim filed protected by work product privilege in suite by insured against insurer for breach of contract and "negligent legal representation."  [Added 4/21/06]  --  GEICO General Ins. Co. v. Hoy, 927 So.2d 122 (Fla. 2d DCA 2006). 

Fourth DCA recedes from prior decision concerning work product and discovery request seeking production of documents "supporting" party's affirmative defenses.  [Added 3/28/06]  --  Grinnell Corp. v. The Palms 2100 Ocean Boulevard, Ltd., 924 So.2d 887 (Fla. 4th DCA 2006).  

Order barring lawyer provided by insurer from showing client/insured case file of insurer in lawyer's possession quashed.  [Added 3/7/06]  --  Allied Asphalt Paving, Inc. v. Auto-Owners Ins. Co., 927 So.2d 11 (Fla. 2d DCA 2006). 

Second DCA expresses confidentiality concern but approves Circuit's plan to electronically record all judicial proceedings.  [Added 2/20/06]  --  Holt. v. Chief Judge of the Thirteenth Judicial Circuit, 920 So.2d 814 (Fla. 2d DCA 2006). 

When ward dies, personal representative may not hold privilege as to all communications between guardian and guardian's lawyer.  [Added 2/10/06]  --  Tripp v. Salkovitz, 919 So.2d 716 (Fla. 2d DCA 2006). Coblentz settlement agreement indicating substance of counsel's advice waives attorney-client privilege as to that advice.  [Added 1/18/06]  --  Chomat v. Northern Ins. Co. of New York, 919 So.2d 535 (Fla. 3d DCA 2006). 

Taped phone conversations between lawyer and incarcerated client not protected by attorney-client privilege.  [Added 1/13/06]  --  Black v. State, 920 So.2d 668 (Fla. 5th DCA 2006). 

"Observations" of private investigators not listed as trial witnesses are work product and not discoverable absent showing of exceptional circumstances.  Huet v. Tromp,  912 So.2d 336 (Fla. 5th DCA 2005). 

Bad faith case plaintiff did not waive attorney-client privilege by bringing suit or by testifying at deposition about counsel's settlement authority.  Lee v. Progressive Express Ins. Co., 909 So.2d 475 (Fla. 4th DCA 2005). 

Receipt of privileged documents pursuant to subsequently vacated court order does not disqualify recipient lawyers, where no harm to movant shown.  Coral Reef of Key Biscayne Developers, Inc. v. Lloyd's Underwriters at London, 911 So.2d 155 (Fla. 3d DCA 2005). 

Out-of-state lawyer serving as in-house counsel is "lawyer" for purposes of attorney-client privilege.  Florida Marlins Baseball Club, LLC v. Certain Underwriters at Lloyd's London Subscribing to Policy No. 893/HC/97/9096, 900 So.2d 720 (Fla. 3d DCA 2005). 

For purposes of work product privilege and insurer's file materials, no distinction between first- and third-part bad faith claims; work product privilege not applicable to claims file.  Allstate Indemnity Co. v. Ruiz, 899 So.2d 1121 (Fla. 2005). 

Work product privilege only applies to documents prepared "in contemplation" of litigation, not for "mere likelihood" of litigation.  Liberty Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Bennett, 883 So.2d 373 (Fla. 4th DCA 2004). 

Where insurer-insured relationship not adversarial from outset, attorney-client privilege does not protect claim file from discovery in later insured-insurer dispute.  Liberty Mutual Fire Ins. Co. v. Kaufman, 885 So.2d 905 (Fla. 3d DCA 2004). 

In trust litigation, attorney-client privilege and work product production belong to lawyers' "real client."  Jacob v. Barton, 877 So.2d 935 (Fla. 2d DCA 2004). 

Fired in-house counsel may disclose client confidences to her lawyer in pursuit of wrongful discharge claim under whistleblower law; lawyer not disqualified.  Alexander v. Tandem Staffing Solutions, Inc., 881 So.2d 607 (Fla. 4th DCA 2004). 

Lawyer who heard client threaten to kill client's sister could not rely on attorney-client privilege to prevent compelled disclosure of information about the threat.  Hodgson Russ, LLP v. Trube, 867 So.2d 1246 (Fla. 4th DCA 2004). 

Interrogatory seeking all exhibits that opposing counsel "might conceivably offer as evidence at trial" is overbroad and improperly seeks information protected by work product privilege.  Bishop v. Polles, 872 So.2d 272 (Fla. 2d DCA 2004). 

Work product privilege ordinarily protects specific group of documents assembled by litigation counsel unless documents will be used for impeachment or other purposes at trial.  Northup v. Herbert W. Acken, M.D., P.A., 865 So.2d 1267 (Fla. 2004). Billing records of opposing counsel are work product and requests for their production in post-trial fee award litigation should be carefully scrutinized.  HCA Health Services of Florida, Inc. v. Hillman, 870 So.2d 104 (Fla. 2d DCA 2003).

Party seeking seeking production of attorney work product material must present testimony or evidence demonstrating "need" pursuant to Fla.R.Civ.P. 1.280(b)(3).  Metric Engineering, Inc. v. Small, 861 So.2d 1248 (Fla. 1st DCA 2003). 

Personal email messages not considered public records by virtue of placement on government-owned computer system.  State v. City of Clearwater, 863 So.2d 149 (Fla. 2003).  

When each party to joint defense agreement is independently represented, one co-defendant's decision to testify against the other waives privilege regarding statements to other's lawyer.  United States v. Almeida, 341 F.3d 1318 (11th Cir. 2003). 

Attorney-client privilege protects from insurer communications between insured and lawyer retained to defend insured that do not pertain to the common interest (i.e., defense of underlying case).  Springer v. United States Automobile Ass’n, 846 So.2d 1234 (Fla. 5th DCA 2003).